6 stages of Diabetes | How Type 2 Diabetes Is Converted Into Type 1 Diabetes

6 stages of Diabetes and which stage is most

Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by elevated blood sugar
levels, it progresses through several stages, each with distinct
characteristics. Here we are going to discuss them in detail, and we will
understand which stage is most dangerous.

Stage 1: Development of Insulin Resistance:

India is a vegetarian country, and our diet mainly consists of grains. In
the grain-rich diet, the carbohydrate content is very high hence the
glucose load of our diet is high. Glucose load or glycemic load indicates
the ability of a food to increase blood glucose levels hence food with
high glucose load will increase blood sugar beyond normal levels.

The higher the glucose present in the blood, the higher the demand for
insulin hormone to transfer this glucose into the body cells. The
pancreas is the organ where beta cells are present which produces
insulin hormone as per the need of the person.

Too much insulin keeps floating in the blood all the time because every
meal we eat contains a lot of glucose load and our body cells also start
rejecting the continuous supply of glucose as they are already full. So
now there is a situation where a lot of insulin is available in the blood,
but it is not able to push blood glucose in the body cells because they
don’t want it anymore.

This is the first stage of development of diabetes, this stage is called
insulin resistance.

Stage 2: Too much of Insulin (Hyperinsulinemia):

In this stage, the blood sugar remains in the normal range, but insulin
levels are higher than normal. The insulin hormone is present in a higher
amount than required in blood so that it can maintain the sugar levels
hence this stage is called as hyperinsulinemia stage.

In this stage insulin resistance increases to a higher level. The door of the
cells closes, and they stop accepting any more glucose. The pancreas in
response produces a higher amount of insulin so that it can break the
entry barrier of cells and push more glucose in them. This is the place

where damage starts in the cell. This causes inflammation, insulin
resistance, and inflammation, this is the beginning of heart diseases and
kidney diseases. I will say this is the real silent killer stage, it remains in
the body, but you will never notice it. It will keep damaging the organs
gradually and we will know the impact after 10 years.

Symptoms of 2 nd stage:

  • During this stage, the body may exhibit symptoms such as tiredness, a feeling of heaviness in the stomach, irregular menstrual cycles in females, and darkening of the skin.
  • It is essential to note that excess insulin, rather than high blood sugar (glycemia), is the main cause of diabetes.
  • Additionally, insulin can harm our delicate blood vessels, called endothelium. In this condition, even a minor cut can cause significant damage to entire blood vessels or veins, particularly those in the eyes, brain, and kidneys.

Stage 3: Low blood Sugar Level (Reactive hypoglycemia):

The condition moves to another level in the third stage. In this stage,
beta cells in the pancreas become impulsive and produce a lot of insulin
in response to the amount of glucose present in the blood. For example,
suppose 10g of glucose previously required 10 units of insulin but due to
irritation, the pancreas produces 15 units of insulin.

This sudden influx of insulin brings the blood sugar down below normal,
and the person starts feeling jittery and wants to eat more sugar to bring
up the blood sugar.

You can easily correlate this condition when you observe that your blood
sugar levels 2 hours after a meal are less than your blood sugar before
the meal. In other words, you can say when your PP sugar is less than
your fasting sugar levels.

So, this is the stage where insulin hormone levels increase and insulin
resistance increases, craving for sugar increases but sugar levels remain
at normal or lower than normal levels. This is the third stage of the
development of diabetes. This is a very confusing stage for a person
because he feels that his blood sugar is low hence, he should eat more
sugar. As he eats more sugar his condition deteriorates further.

Low Blood Sugar Symptoms:
  • Irritation or headaches when food is delayed, constant sleepiness or fatigue after meals, and a persistent craving for sweets.
  • Despite low blood sugar, there may be elevated blood pressure, higher cholesterol levels, and a risk of obesity.

Stage 4: Pre-Diabetes Condition:

This is the stage where people will start to notice that their blood sugar
values are going above 100mg/dl in a fasting state but generally people
deny being pre-diabetic. They console themselves by saying that their
fasting blood sugar is high because they ate more the night before the

During this stage, their blood sugar reading frequently starts jumping the
boundary line. They frequently observe that their blood sugar readings
are in the pre-diabetic range like fasting blood sugar levels typically
between 100-125 mg/dl, and after meals, between 140-199 mg/dl. This
pre-diabetic situation can last for 3 to 4 years. To manage it, doctors
recommend a low-calorie diet, exercise, and avoiding high-carb foods.


  • Increasing insulin levels can harm the thin layers (endothelium) of blood vessels throughout the body. This damage affects organs such as the liver, kidneys, heart, and brain.
  • In males, it can lead to erectile dysfunction as insulin damages the thin blood vessel layers, causing blockages. These blockages hinder the necessary blood circulation for erections, impacting the male reproductive system.

Stage 5: Type-2 Diabetes:

This is the stage where a person has blood sugar in the diabetic range
like fasting above 126mg/dl and 2hr after meal above 200mg/dl. A
doctor prescribes medications to bring his blood sugar into the normal
range or pre-diabetic range. However, these medications work by
increasing insulin in the blood, which moves sugars from the blood into

It is important to note that relying solely on medication might give the
impression that blood sugar levels are under control, but this is the most
dangerous stage as per my knowledge because these antidiabetic drugs
keep increasing insulin levels in blood, and this keeps increasing insulin

This is a very dangerous condition because blood sugar keeps fluctuating
between high and low which constantly keeps damaging the endothelium of small blood vessels, moreover, insulin is also all-time high, insulin resistance is also all-time high, beta cells are dying faster than before under the influence of anti-diabetic drugs and still person is having false sense of security. This is the stage where damage is happening at a very rapid rate.

Stage 6: Type-1 Diabetes/(hypo-insulinemia):

This is the final stage of diabetes where beta cells are critically low
because lot of them are dead due to excessive production pressure.
When excessive medication damages the pancreas, rendering it unable
to function, doctors often recommend insulin injections. In this stage,
the body becomes dependent on external insulin. This is the stage
person a shift from Type-2 diabetes to insulin dependent diabetes
equaling to Type-1 diabetes.

This was the old belief that diabetes is caused by deficiency of insulin but
after 1990 it was clear that it is due to excess of insulin or insulin
resistance. Insulin resistance is a reversible condition hence if person
follows low EGL Chart for selecting low EGL diet using food products like
Diabexy Atta and Diabexy Cookies, he can control the situation.

Diabexy offers a wide range of diabetic products which are made with
low glycemic index and low glycemic load products/ ingredients. Diabexy
is the largest manufacturer of diabetic food products in India with low
EGL, you can contact Diabexy team and get help.

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